- The Institute for Social Justice submits this brief report on water and sanitation in Pakistan to the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Sustainable Human Development Section, Special Procedures Division, UNOG-OHCHR
Violations of the rights to water and/or sanitation
- According to Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement Survey 2008-09, sanitation coverage has increased from 30 percent in 1990 to 63 percent in 2008-09. It is estimated that every year Pakistan losses 3.94 percent of GDP because of poor sanitation and water facilities, which costs Pakistan 343.7 Billion rupees (US$5.7 Billion). With the current speed of progress on the sanitation system, Pakistan’s targets under MDGs will be met by 2028.
- A report by Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) reveals that 44 percent of the total population in Pakistan is without access to safe drinking water whereas in rural areas 90 percent of the population lacks such access.
- About 50 percent households in Pakistan have facilities of piped drinking water, mainly in the urban areas  but due to poor governance and no maintenance of pipeline people receive contaminated water with sewage, which results increase in hepatitis, gastroenteritis and other diseases. There is no system in place to test quality of existing piped water. There are often reported protests by communities against water and sanitation authorities for supplying contaminated sewage water but these protests usually go unheard.
- In result of poor water and sanitation, estimated 97,900 people die every year in Pakistan, and 54,000 children under age of five in Pakistan die from diarrhea caused by poor water and sanitation services. In 2013, the child mortality rate was 42 percent, and water and sanitation related diseases were reported responsible for some 60 percent of the total number of child mortality cases in Pakistan.
Non-implementation of the UN Committees recommendations
- On 3 November 2004, Pakistan signed ratified the International Covenant on Economic Social Cultural Rights 1966 and ratified it on 17 April 2008 with reservations. In 2010, Pakistan had to submit the initial report which it had not submitted by 28th February 2014. The ICESCRs lays emphasis on the social, economic and cultural rights that include the right to water and sanitation. However, Pakistan has not been able to proceed with the implementation of the Convention.
- Pakistan has also signed the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) that lays down principles to end discrimination against women, with references to water and sanitation too. CEDAW says the State shall ensure the right: “To enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communication”(Article 14(2)(h)).
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) clearly indicates water, environmental sanitation and hygiene. states: “States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures: … c) to combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution; …(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents” (Article 24(2) CRC).
- The Committee on the Rights of the Child in its Concluding Observations and Recommendations (October 2009) had shown serious concerns and said that there is “about (d) The lack of access to sanitation and clean, sufficient, reliable and affordable drinking water, the high prevalence of malnutrition among children, as well as diarrhoea, acute respiratory tract infections, malaria and iodine deficiency which threaten the right to health and survival of children” (recommendation 60 (d)). The Committee also said that that “rates of relative and extreme poverty remain very high, particularly of children, and that indicators on adequate housing, nutrition, water and sanitation, and sewage remain alarming” (paragraph 76).
- The Committee also regretted that “the number of non-functional public schools is very high, either for having been destroyed by non-state actors or lacking basic facilities, including drinking water, toilets, electricity and boundary walls” (paragraph 78 (f)). The Committee had recommended Pakistan to take measures to provide basic services and facilities for preventable diseases (recommendation 61). The Committee had also recommended Pakistan to “provide… access to clean water, adequate sanitation, food and shelter in all regions and communities of the country, including to the internally displaced and the refugee population” (paragraph 77 (c)).
- Pakistan has been extremely slow in following-up with the Committee’s recommendations including implementation of the right to water and sanitation. According to a recent report on the state of education in Pakistan reveals that in rural areas of Pakistan basic facilities are missing: only 64% government primary schools have drinkable water facility and 47% have usable toilets. In urban areas, 76% government primary schools have drinkable water facility and 69% have usable toilets. 
- In 2011, Pakistan ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Article 28 (2) of the CRPD defines the right of persons with disabilities to an adequate standard of living and states. It states that “States Parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to social protection and to the enjoyment of that right without discrimination on the basis of disability, and shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the realization of this right, including measures: (a) To ensure equal access by persons with disabilities to clean water services, and to ensure access to appropriate and affordable services, devices and other assistance for disability-related needs”.
Structural causes, underlying determinants power relationships between various groups and sectors of society
- Extremely poor water and sanitation is basically an inference of poor governance at local, provincial and national levels. Besides, poverty is considered major factor of poor water and sanitation conditions and extremely low coverage, but also poor or absent water and sanitation systems are reasons poverty in Pakistan.
- It is estimated that “one-third of Pakistan’s population or 58.7 million people live below the poverty line… 21 per cent of the households in Pakistan fall in the category of extremely poor. This proportion is very high in the rural areas; one-third of the rural households fall in the category of extremely poor as compared to only eight per cent urban households.” In 2013, Human Development Index value for Pakistan is 145 amongst 187 countries.
- Water and sanitation has never been regarded as basic rights of people: neither civil society organizations have introduced it as a right nor political governments have recognized it a fundamental right. Therefore, there is lack of governments’ attention on the issue and it is not priority of district, provincial and federal governments.
Policy and legislation
- In 2006, National Sanitation Policy was introduced but it could not be implemented because the 18th Constitutional Amendment which devolved powers to provinces for sanitation matters. There have neither been introduced sanitation policies by provincial government nor conducted reviews of the previous national sanitation policy.
Sanitary work is being regulated by local laws, which have hardly been discussed and reviewed by civil society organizations. The sanitation laws are participatory in their make as well as poor implemented, that is why streets give look of garbage heaps and draining overflowing on roads and strees.
- Micro governance of water and sanitation has remained under municipal councils/corporations, and at next stage, district administration deals with it. But these two tiers have never been effective as the local governance system of elected bodies and elected local representatives, which can and have responsibly delivered services to the local people who vote them. The local governance system can address the issue of access to drinkable safe water and proper sanitation system. This is not possible because the main political parties in Pakistan are not in favor of independent local governance system with own resources and powers.
- For safe drinking water and sanitation preference is given to urban areas whereas rural areas are never the priority of governments, whereas in urban areas access to water through piped line has been tested by laboratories.
- The development and expansion of cities and town is taking place without proper planning, which results water distribution crisis and water draining system. In case of rain, drains over flow, and filthy water enter into houses. Generally, after rain, many parts of Pakistan’s big cities remain under water.
Investment for clean environment
- For improved hygienic and latrine system, district, provincial and national governments have to invest. Wider the coverage of sanitation, lower the trends of preventable diseases.
- In major cities of Pakistan, tanker mafias take away water from the main supply and sell it out worth billion rupees to residents. These tanker mafias run under the hand of authorities that regulate or govern water distribution. In result, poor localities do not get water, and those who pay to tankers they receive through tankers.
Lack of communities’ interest
- In Pakistan, cleaning and improvement of sanitation are responsibilities of the municipal committees and non-Muslim communities mainly Christians. It is consider low paid sub-human service by sanitary workers who usually face humiliation at the hand of public. Sanitary workers are often seen protesting for their salaries, which they received always late. In such situation, towns wore a filthy look with heaps on garbage on streets. The number of sanitary workers is extremely low, with loads of work to do in short time.
Particular groups and individuals whose rights have been violated disproportionately
Women and girls without water and sanitation
- Higher dropout rate of girls from schools reported because of absence of proper sanitation facilities for millions of girls in schools. In the absence of proper toilets, “millions of women and girls either wait for nightfall to defecate in the open, or do so in unsanitary non-flush toilets. This exposes them to the risk of sexual harassment (or attack) and impinges on their sense of dignity. Improved water and sanitation services can reduce such risks and help boost the positive contribution of women and children in society.”
- Pakistan’s National Nutritional Survey, 2011, states that rural population mainly women have low access to health facilities, clean water and sanitation. About 66 percent of the population lives in rural areas and around half of it consisted of women; they are the main sufferers in this situation. The Survey states that only 32 percent have access to piped water.
Internally displaced people (IDPs)
- Pakistan is in warlike situation since 2001 and actively engaged in the war against terrorism. There have occurred massive disasters in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012, which has resulted millions of displaced people, many of those are still living in camps at various parts of the country; where they are deprived of most of the basic rights, there they live without proper washrooms and clean water, which has to be brought from long distances for daily use. In most cases the water available does not meet the required standards and is harmful for health.
Ex-Bonded labourers in camps
- There are more than 7 camps around Hyderabad city in Sindh-Pakistan of people who had escaped from landlords’ captivity or were released by the police on the directions of the courts. All these camps are without basic water and sanitation facilities. These ex-bonded labourer families remain victims of preventable diseases.
- Poor regions in Pakistan such Kacho (in Dadu district) and Thar (Tharparkar and Sanghar districts) greatly rely on rain water, which basically fills up wells in the region; however, quality of the underground water in these regions is reported very dangerous and contaminated by arsenic.
Water distribution between provinces
- Provinces in Pakistan have signed Water Apportionment Accord in 1991. Sindh province considers that being lower riparian it is not receiving due water share as given in the 1991 accord. Therefore, Sindh province has resisted building Kalabagh dam for stopping Sindh’s water. Balochistan province has also been concerned about its water share being taken away by Sindh province. The people at the end of the Indus river mainly fishing communities have time and again protested and demanded more water to downstream Kotri fresh. Fresh water flow has reduced in the lower Indus region by over 93 per cent which is the main cause of sea intrusion in the lower Sindh areas.
- The sea intrusion has caused abdominal and skin diseases amongst the local communities. “In the village of Darwesh, goats and sheep suffer from lung diseases by intake of saline water and salinity-ridden fodder. About 10 to 15 women die each year due to pregnancy-related complications, caused by drinking saline water. Nearly, 5,000 families of Darwesh village [in Thatta Sindh] have migrated elsewhere because of the harsh living conditions. In Keti Bander, over 90 per cent of agricultural land has been rendered barren thereby affecting livelihoods across the community.”
Addressing and seeking remedies for discriminatory practices
- The ISJ plans to work with municipal corporations as well as with associations of sanitary workers to increase awareness of sanitary workers and public on water and sanitation issues. The ISJ support organizations and social movements that demand equal distribution of water resources as per the accord of 1991.
The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan: http://www.zaragoza.es/contenidos/medioambiente/onu/828_eng.pdf
 Sehrish Wasif (2011) WaterAid report launch: Hygiene and sanitation remain distant dream for majority
 Aurat Foundation Pakistan (2012) Alternative Report on CEDAW
United Nations Treaty Collections at https://treaties.un.org/pages/viewdetails.aspx?chapter=4&lang=en&mtdsg_no=iv-3&src=treaty#EndDec
ASER Pakistan (2014): Annual State of Education Report 2013
 SDPI (2012), Policy Outreach at http://www.sdpi.org/policy_outreach/news_details824-2013.html
 United Nations Development Programme (2013), Human Development Report 2013, The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/Country-Profiles/PAK.pdf.
 Alternative Report on CEDAW by Aurat Foundation and others
 Center for the Improvement of Working Conditions & Environment at http://www.ciwce.org.pk/Interactive_Programme/Docs/nplabour.pdf
 Dawn (2011), Sea Intrusion: The rising tide 2 at http://www.dawn.com/news/602451/sea-intrusion-the-rising-tide2